Which are the best castles to visit in the UK? What’s the difference between a moat and a murder hole? We’re talking castles in this episode of….Aprender Inglés con Reza y Craig
Audio message from Manuel Tarazona from Paterna (Patreon sponsor, long-time listener and frequent e-mail writer)
He’s making an effort!
I have (written) emails – pronunciation of ‘written’.
Is that a bird in the background?
Voice message from Gabby from Peru
Gabby wakes up at 6 o’clock! Are the streets and roads down at 6? What’s the world like at that time?
“I head my way to the gym” – (I head to the gym/I make my way to the gym)
She works her butt (backside, buttocks)
Pronunciation of ‘biceps’
‘Once I’m done’
Thank you for your message and please be back soon and kisses to you in Peru, Gabby!
Comment on the website from Melina
Hello Reza and Craig! I’m so grateful for your amazing podcast! I recently lost my job and I was kinda sad because I had to quit the English lessons I was taking because I don’t have enough money to pay for them anymore.
But then I found your podcast and now I’m a happy student again!
I’m a fan of British castles and I was wondering if you could talk about that.
Thank you for the podcast, the tips, and the website, they are very helpful.
Pronunciation: castles (silent ‘t’)
What is a castle? – “A castle (from Latin: castellum) is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by European nobility.” – Wikipedia
“a private fortified residence”
Moat – a deep, broad ditch, either dry or filled with water, that surrounds a castle to provide it with a first line of defence. (foso/a)
Drawbridge – a bridge that can be raised (puente levadizo)
Battlement – a narrow wall built along the outer edge of the wall walk to protect soldiers against attack. (almena)
Dungeon – the jail, usually found in one of the towers. (calabozo, mazmorra)
Keep -the inner stronghold of the castle (fortaleza, torreón)
Portcullis – vertical sliding wooden/iron grille suspended in front of a gateway designed to protect the gate. (rastrillo)
Turret – a small tower rising above one of the main towers, usually used as a look-out point. (torrecilla)
Murder holes – holes in the ceiling through which scalding liquid, like oil or tar, or rocks, arrows etc would be poured or thrown on the enemy
Fort – from Latin: fortis. (More or less) a synonym for castle, but some scholars argue that a fort is exclusively for military purposes, whereas a castle may or may not be.
Fortress – a very big fort
Windsor Castle (20 miles west of London)
At 900 years old, Windsor Castle is the largest occupied castle and oldest official royal residence in the world.
The Queen goes there at the weekends.
Hampton Court Palace (in Surrey along the River Thames)
Occupied by Henry the VIII, famous for having 6 wives and beheading 2 of them.
Now it’s a tourist attraction.
Edinburgh Castle (Edinburgh, Scotland – 400 miles north of London)
The most besieged castle in Britain – assaulted more than 20 times.
Houses the Scottish crown jewels.
The Tower of London (Tower Hill underground Station)
Home of the Queen’s Crown Jewels
It has been a zoo, a palace, a prison, a Royal Mint, a garrison (una guarnición) and a home.
It was a zoo from 1210 until 1832 and had elephants, lions, polar bears and grizzly bears. The price of admittance was a dog or a cat to throw to the lions.
Dover Castle (at the White Cliffs of Dover, South of England)
Built by Henry II – the military key to England.
It has defensive tunnels under it which were built during the Napoleonic Wars in case of invasion by the French.
Boats left from here in the Second World War to evacuate Dunkirk.
There’s a huge anti-nuclear bunker built for the government here ready for World War Three!
Warwick castle (on the A40 between Oxford and Birmingham – in the middle of England)
Great day out for all the family – Medieval dungeons, battlements, gardens, archery, hawking demonstrations (hawk = halcón), a giant catapult that shoots fireballs and a new hi-tech attraction called The Time Tower.
Caernarfon Castle (North-west Wales just outside Snowdonia National Park)
The castle cost between £20,000 and £25,000 from the start until the end of work in 1330. A whole year’s taxes.
Built by King Edward I to intimidate the Welsh. it has huge Polygonal towers (more than three sides).
Carrickfergus Castle (11 miles from Belfast, on the Irish Sea coast)
Considered one of the finest preserved Norman castles, built in 1177 by John de Courcy.
It has been occupied and attacked by Norman, Irish, Scottish, English and French forces.
It was used as a garrison as late as World War II.
Facts about castles
There were no toilets – waste went out through a hole and into the moat.
The first castles were made of wood and built by the Normans (who came from Normandy, France).
The biggest castle in the world is Prague castle.
Castles always had a spiral stairway that turned clockwise to give the advantage to right-handed swordsmen.
There are 1500 castle sites in England. About 300 castles are still standing and in reasonable condition.
A comment on the website from Lucia:
Hello Reza and Craig,
Commencing to hear this new podcast (I’ve just started listening to this new podcast) and I already have a question, so, as I always forget these after the fun of the entire podcast,
I’ll write (it) down as it comes to me even if I lose context and the question barely makes sense! Here it is
Hearing the letter (listening to) of Juan Carlos, and Reza saying “it is a common mistake”, why in some dialogues of TV series the question appears in the form of an affirmation? Like so:
-You are coming with me Johnny.
(Note: the intonation in “I am” is like should be a question, but it is not, or AM I WRONG?)
Thank you for all!!! (thanks for everything), Lucia.
(Am I a good teacher? – question / I am a good teacher – affirmation / so am I)
…and now it’s your turn to practise your English. Do you have a question for us or an idea for a future episode?
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– How to Pass a Job Interview mp3 and pdf
We want to thank Arminda from Madrid, Alberto from Granada and Angélica Bello from Madrid for continuing to transcribe full transcriptions. Available transcriptions are episodes 131 to 142, and episodes 1,2,3 and 4.
On next week’s episode: Aliens and UFOs
The music in this podcast is by Pitx. The track is called ‘See You Later’